500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字

生物降解材料中的成分是使用的標準

生物降解材料中的成分是使用的標準

網址:http://tecnoleo.com 手機頁面二維碼 2024-01-16 08:41:47    

生物降解塑料是指一類由自然界存在的微生物如細菌、霉菌(真菌)和藻類的做用而引起降解的塑料。理想的生物降解塑料是一種具有優良的使用性能、廢棄后可被環境微生物完全降解、終被無機化而成為自然界中碳素循環的一個組成部分的高分子材料。

Biodegradable plastics refer to a type of plastic that is degraded by natural microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae. The ideal biodegradable plastic is a polymer material with excellent performance, which can be completely degraded by environmental microorganisms after being discarded, and ultimately becomes an integral part of the carbon cycle in nature through inorganic transformation.

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字“紙”是一種典型的生物降解材料,而“合成塑料”則是典型的高分子材料。因此,生物降解塑料是兼有“紙”和"合成塑料"這兩種材料性質的高分子材料。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字"Paper" is a typical biodegradable material, while "synthetic plastic" is a typical polymer material. Therefore, biodegradable plastics are polymer materials that combine the properties of both paper and synthetic plastics.

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字在自然界各種條件下,終完全降解變成二氧化碳(CO2)或/和甲烷、水(H2O)及其所含元素的礦化無機鹽以及新的生物質的一種塑料。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字A plastic that completely degrades into carbon dioxide (CO2) or/and methane, water (H2O) and its mineralized inorganic salts, as well as new biomass under various natural conditions.

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當生物可降解材料被扔到大自然中,經過一定條件(土壤、沙土、堆肥、厭氧、水性培養液等),自然分解為小塊,實質就是高分子斷裂的過程,再經過外界條件的摧殘,分解為大分子,再分解為小分子,被微生物吸收后,釋放二氧化碳和水,同時植物通過光合作用,釋放出氧氣,整個循環過程,非常環保。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字When biodegradable materials are thrown into nature and undergo certain conditions (soil, sand, compost, anaerobic, water-based culture medium, etc.), they naturally decompose into small pieces, which is essentially the process of polymer fracture. After being subjected to external conditions, they decompose into large molecules, which are then broken down into small molecules. After being absorbed by microorganisms, they release carbon dioxide and water. At the same time, plants release oxygen through photosynthesis, and the entire cycle process, Very environmentally friendly.

目前主要分為四大類,PLA類(聚乳酸)、PBS類(聚酯類)、PBAT類(聚酯類)、PHA類(聚羥基烷酸酯)。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字At present, it is mainly divided into four categories: PLA (polylactic acid), PBS (polyester), PBAT (polyester), and PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates).

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字PLA:是常見的可降解塑料之一,是以乳酸為主要原料聚合得到的聚合物。PLA生產過程無污染,而且產品可以生物降解,使用后的PLA可以通過堆肥,在溫度高于55℃或富氧和微生物作用下降解為二氧化碳和水,實現在自然界中的物質循環,不會對環境產生影響。目前聚乳酸的生產主要采用丙交酯開環聚合工藝將乳酸先脫水生成低聚物,然后解聚生成丙交酯,再開環聚合制得聚乳酸。 PLA還具有可靠的生物性、生物可降解性、良好的力學性能和易加工性,廣泛用于包裝、紡織行業、農用地膜和生物醫用高分子等行業。是可降解塑料研究中非常活躍和市場應用好降解材料之一,PLA在生物降解塑料中具有相對較低的成本,PLA的消費量居于前列。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字PLA: is one of the common biodegradable plastics, which is a polymer polymerized from lactic acid as the main raw material. The production process of PLA is pollution-free, and the product can be biodegraded. After use, PLA can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water through composting at temperatures above 55 ℃ or under the action of enriched oxygen and microorganisms, achieving material circulation in nature without affecting the environment. At present, the production of polylactic acid mainly adopts the propylene glycol ring opening polymerization process to dehydrate lactic acid to form oligomers, then depolymerize to form propylene glycol, and then open the ring polymerization to obtain polylactic acid. PLA also has reliable biosafety, biodegradability, good mechanical properties, and ease of processing, and is widely used in industries such as packaging, textile, agricultural films, and biomedical polymers. PLA is one of the most active and widely used biodegradable materials in the research and market of biodegradable plastics. It has a relatively low cost in biodegradable plastics and its consumption is among the top.

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字PBS:是由于丁二酸和1,4-丁二醇經縮合聚合而成,原料來源為石油或生物資源發酵。 PBS易被自然界的多種微生物或酶終分解為二氧化碳和水,具有良好的生物相容性和生物可吸收性,良好的耐熱性能。 PBS可以用包裝薄膜、餐具、發泡包材、日用品瓶、藥品瓶、農用薄膜、農藥及化肥緩釋材料等領域。由于丁二酸原料有限,PBS的衍生物PBAT和PBSA順應而生,其與PBS的性能基本相似,但加工性能不及PBS。

PBS: It is formed by condensation polymerization of succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol, with raw materials sourced from petroleum or biological resource fermentation. PBS is easily decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by various microorganisms or enzymes in nature, and has good biocompatibility and bioabsorbability, as well as good heat resistance. PBS can be used in fields such as packaging films, tableware, foam packaging materials, daily necessities bottles, pharmaceutical bottles, agricultural films, pesticide and fertilizer slow-release materials. Due to the limited availability of succinic acid raw materials in China, PBS derivatives PBAT and PBSA have emerged, which have similar properties to PBS but lower processing performance than PBS.

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字PBAT:屬于熱塑性可降解塑料,一般以脂肪族酸、丁二醇為原料,經石化途徑或生物發酵途徑生產,既有較好的延展性和斷裂伸長率,也有較好的耐熱性和沖擊性能。由于PBAT的成膜性能良好,易于吹膜,廣泛用于一次性包裝膜及農膜領域。 PBAT 的缺點是降解條件相對苛刻。

500508百万文字论文-百万文字论文500308-500507百万文字论坛综合资料转载-500507高清跑狗图马会资料-780790百万文字论坛红字PBAT: It belongs to thermoplastic degradable plastics, generally produced from aliphatic acids and butanediol through petrochemical or biological fermentation pathways. It has good ductility and elongation at break, as well as good heat resistance and impact performance. Due to its excellent film-forming performance and ease of blowing, PBAT is widely used in the fields of disposable packaging films and agricultural films. The disadvantage of PBAT is that the degradation conditions are relatively harsh.

PHA:PHAs類可降解塑料有聚羥基脂肪酸酯(PHA)、聚3-羥基丁酸酯(PHB)等類別,PHA的降解方式很特別,使用完后PHA可以在生物體內完全降解成β-羥基丁酸、二氧化碳和水。 PHAs類可降解塑料熱變形溫度高、具有良好的生物相容性,但加工溫度范圍窄、熱穩定性差、脆性大、生產質量不穩定、可用于一次性用品、醫療器械手術服、包裝袋和堆肥袋、醫用縫線、修復裝置、繃帶、骨科針、防黏連膜及支架等領域。

PHA: PHA degradable plastics include categories such as polyhydroxyfatty acid esters (PHA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), etc. The degradation method of PHA is very unique, and after use, PHA can be completely degraded into β- Hydroxybutyric acid, carbon dioxide, and water. PHAs biodegradable plastics have high thermal deformation temperature and good biocompatibility, but their processing temperature range is narrow, thermal stability is poor, brittleness is high, and production quality is unstable. They can be used in disposable products, medical equipment surgical gowns, packaging bags and compost bags, medical sutures, repair devices, bandages, orthopedic needles, anti adhesive films and brackets, and other fields.

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